Keith D. Lindor, MD, FACG1, Kris V. Kowdley, MD, FACG2, and M. Edwyn Harrison, MD3
1College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona, USA; 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona, USA; 3Liver Care Network and Organ Care Research, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Am J Gastroenterol 2015; 110:646–659; doi: 10.1038/ajg.2015.112; published online 14 April 2015
Received 1 October 2014; accepted 22 March 2015
Correspondence: Keith D. Lindor, MD, FACG, College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University,
550 North 3rd Street, Phoenix, Arizona 85004, USA.
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that can shorten life and may require liver transplantation. The cause is unknown, although it is commonly associated with colitis. There is no approved or proven therapy, although ursodeoxycholic acid is used by many on an empiric basis. Complications including portal hypertension, fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, metabolic bone diseases, and development of cancers of the bile duct or colon can occur.